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EU Digital COVID Certificate

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The EU Digital COVID Certificate will facilitate safe free movement of citizens in the EU during the COVID-19 pandemic.


The certificate will be introduced in EU Member States. Countries can start issuing and using it already and it will become available in all EU Member States as of 1 July 2021.

What is the EU Digital COVID Certificate?

An EU Digital COVID Certificate is a digital proof that a person has either

tick icon been vaccinated against COVID-19
tick icon received a negative test result or
tick icon recovered from COVID-19



How will citizens get the certificate?

National authorities are in charge of issuing the certificate. It could, for example, be issued by test centres or health authorities, or directly via an eHealth portal.

The digital version can be stored on a mobile device. Citizens can also request a paper version. Both will have a QR code that contains essential information, as well as a digital signature to make sure the certificate is authentic.

Member States have agreed on a common design that can be used for the electronic and paper versions to facilitate the recognition.

How will it help free movement?

The EU Digital COVID Certificate will be accepted in all EU Member States. It will help to ensure that restrictions currently in place can be lifted in a coordinated manner.

When travelling, the EU Digital COVID Certificate holder should in principle be exempted from free movement restrictions: Member States should refrain from imposing additional travel restrictions on the holders of an EU Digital COVID Certificate, unless they are necessary and proportionate to safeguard public health.

In such a case – for instance as a reaction to new variants of concern – that Member State would have to notify the Commission and all other Member States and justify this decision.

How will the certificate work?

QR code icon The EU Digital COVID Certificate contains a QR code with a digital signature to protect it against falsification.
Scan icon When the certificate is checked, the QR code is scanned and the signature verified.
digital signature icon Each issuing body (e.g. a hospital, a test centre, a health authority) has its own digital signature key. All of these are stored in a secure database in each country.
validation icon The European Commission has built a gateway through which all certificate signatures can be verified across the EU. The personal data of the certificate holder does not pass through the gateway, as this is not necessary to verify the digital signature. The European Commission also helped Member States to develop national software and apps to issue, store and verify certificates and supported them in the necessary tests to on-board the gateway.


Will citizens who are not yet vaccinated be able to travel to another EU country?

Yes. The EU Digital COVID Certificate should facilitate free movement inside the EU. It will not be a pre-condition to free movement, which is a fundamental right in the EU.

Travel The EU Digital COVID Certificate will also prove the results of testing, which is often required under applicable public health restrictions. The certificate is an opportunity for Member States to adjust the existing restrictions on public health grounds. The currently applicable recommendation on coordinating free movement restrictions in the EU will also be amended by mid-June with a view to the holiday season.

Does it matter which vaccine citizens received?

Vaccination certificates will be issued to a vaccinated person for any COVID-19 vaccine.

When it comes to waiving free movement restrictions, Member States will have to accept vaccination certificates for vaccines which received EU marketing authorisation. Member States may decide to extend this also to EU travellers that received another vaccine.

It is also for Member States to decide whether they accept a vaccination certificate after one dose or after a full vaccination cycle has been completed.

What data does the certificate include? Is the data safe?

The EU Digital COVID Certificate contains necessary key information such as name, date of birth, date of issuance, relevant information about vaccine/ test/recovery and a unique identifier. This data remains on the certificate and is not stored or retained when a certificate is verified in another Member State.

The certificates will only include a limited set of information that is necessary. This cannot be retained by visited countries. For verification purposes, only the validity and authenticity of the certificate is checked by verifying who issued and signed it. All health data remains with the Member State that issued an EU Digital COVID Certificate.

More questions and answers about the EU Digital COVID Certificate

Digital COVID certificate map 10 June-2

Technically ready to connect to the EUDCC gateway Effectively connected, issuing and/or verifying at least one EUDCC (vaccination, recovery, negative test)
Austria Yes Yes
Belgium Yes No
Bulgaria Yes Yes
Croatia Yes Yes
Cyprus Yes No
Czechia Yes Yes
Denmark Yes Yes
Estonia Yes Yes
Finland In test phase No
France Yes No
Germany Yes Yes
Greece Yes Yes
Hungary In test phase No
Ireland Yes No
Italy Yes No
Latvia Yes Yes
Lithuania Yes Yes
Luxembourg Yes No
Malta In test phase No
The Netherlands Yes No
Poland Yes Yes
Portugal Yes No
Romania Yes No
Slovakia Yes No
Slovenia Yes No
Spain Yes Yes
Sweden Yes No
Non-EU countries
Liechtenstein Yes No
Switzerland Yes No
Iceland Yes No
Norway Yes No



  • 27 January

    Guidelines laying out interoperability requirements of digital vaccination certificates were adopted, building on discussion held between the Commission and Member States in the eHealth Network since November 2020.

  • 17 March

    The Commission proposed a legislative text establishing a common framework for an EU certificate.

  • 14 April

    The Council adopted its mandate to start negotiations with the European Parliament on the proposal.

  • 22 April

    Member States’ representatives in the eHealth Network agreed on guidelines describing the main technical specifications for the implementation of the system. This was a crucial step for the establishment of the necessary infrastructure at EU level.

  • 7 May

    The Commission started the pilot test of the EU interoperability infrastructure (EU Gateway) that will facilitate the authentication of the EU Certificates.

  • 20 May

    The European Parliament and the Council agreed on the EU Digital COVID Certificate.

  • 1 June

    EU Gateway (interconnection of national systems) goes live.

  • 1 – 30 June

    Warm-up phase: Member States can launch the certificate on a voluntary basis provided they are ready to issue and verify certificates, and have the necessary legal base in place.

  • mid-June

    Revised Council Recommendation on travel within the EU.

  • 1 July

    The EU Digital COVID Certificate enters into application throughout the EU.

  • 1 July – 12 August

    Phase-in period: if a Member State is not yet ready to issue the new certificate to its citizens, other formats can still be used and should be accepted in other Member States.

Disclaimer: The publication of the above European Commission document in no way implies any association of the Guidepost with the Commission nor with the broader European Union. The document is published under the CC BY4.0 International license.


Featured image: QR code/K.H.J./MCI. Passport and Visa/Mohammed Hassan. World Travel icons/Please Don’t Sell My Artwork As Is. All from Pixabay.  (Montage by Guidepost.)