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The G20 and how it works

The G20 is the international forum that brings together the world’s major economies. Its members account for more than 80% of world GDP, 75% of global trade and 60% of the population of the planet.

The forum has met every year since 1999 and includes, since 2008, a yearly Summit, with the participation of the respective Heads of State and Government (“Leaders”).

The G20 leadership rotates on an annual basis among its members. Italy assumed the 2021 Presidency on the 1st December 2020.

In addition to the Leaders’ Summit, Ministerial meetings, Working Groups, Engagement Groups and special events are held throughout the year of Presidency. The outcome of this process flows into the broader Communiqué, traditionally adopted by the G20 Heads of State and Government at the end of the Summit.

Sherpa Meetings

In the preparatory process of each G20 Presidency, the Sherpas, high ranking diplomats who represent the G20 governments, are in charge of carrying out negotiations and building consensus among the members, discussing agenda items for the Summit and coordinating the work of the G20. They draft the final Communiqué that is undersigned at the Leaders’ Summit.

Working Groups

The Working Groups are in charge of leading the in-depth discussion of a range of internationally relevant issues. The members are experts from the G20 countries, addressing specific issues linked to the broader G20 agenda. Each group is coordinated by a representative of the competent Ministry of the country holding the G20 Presidency.

During the 2021 Italian Presidency, the Working Groups addressed the following major issues: Agriculture, Anti-Corruption, Culture, Development, Digital Economy, Education, Employment, Energy transition and Climate sustainability, Environment, Health, Research and Higher Education, Tourism, Trade and Investment.

Finance Track

Although the topics addressed by the G20 have significantly expanded over the years, the economic themes have maintained particular importance in the process.

Within the G20 process, the term “Finance Track” refers to the meetings coordinated by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, aimed at investigating the various aspects related to economic, financial, monetary and tax issues. This framework is structured into five separate working groups, dedicated to sustainable and inclusive growth, international financial architecture, infrastructure, financial inclusion, and Africa.

Engagement Groups

In a perspective of broader inclusion and participation, the G20 decision-making process has been enriched, over the years, with the involvement of social actors who regularly meet as G20 Engagement Groups.

The Engagement Groups work independently from governments and involve several stakeholders of the international community, representing Business community (B20), Civil society (C20), Trade unions (L20), Academies of Science (S20), Think tanks and research centers (T20), Major cities (U20), Women (W20) and Youth associations (Y20).

The Engagement Groups submit formal recommendations to the G20 Presidency before each Leaders’ Summit.



Rome Summit

On October 30th and 31st 2021, Rome hosts the G20 Heads of State and Government Summit, with the participation of the G20 Heads of State and Government, of their counterparts from invited countries, and of the representatives of some of the main international and regional organizations.

The Summit is the climax of the G20 process and the final stage, at Leaders’ level, of the intense work carried out within Ministerial Meetings, Working Groups and Engagement Groups throughout the year.

Rome is the sixteenth city in the history of the G20 to host the Summit of Heads of State and Government. The first Summit was held in Washington in November 2008, while the last – under the Saudi Presidency – was held in virtual mode in November 2020.

The venues where the Summit 2021 takes place are located in the EUR district. The construction of the area began for the 1942 Exposition and was completed for the 1960 Olympics. In recent decades the neighborhood has taken on a residential and commercial function. It houses the headquarters of various public offices, companies and foreign multinationals.



The G20 established a joint Finance-Health Task Force to strengthen
pandemic prevention, preparedness and response

The G20 will take all necessary steps needed to advance on the global goals of vaccinating at least
40 percent of the population in all countries by the end of 2021 and 70 percent by mid-2022

29 October 2021

The G20 established a joint Finance-Health Task Force to strengthen pandemic prevention, preparedness and response
On Friday 29 October 2021, G20 Finance and Health Ministers met for their first joint meeting under the Italian G20 Presidency. The meeting took place on the eve of the G20 Leaders’ Summit and it was co-chaired by Daniele Franco, Italian Minister for Economy and Finance, and Roberto Speranza, Italian Minister of Health.

Under the Italian G20 Presidency, the membership committed to bringing the pandemic under control everywhere as soon as possible and strengthening collective efforts to prepare for, prevent, detect, and respond to future pandemics. In this sense, the G20 will take all necessary steps needed to advance on the global goals of vaccinating at least 40 percent of the population in all countries by the end of 2021 and 70 percent by mid-2022, as recommended by the WHO.

Finance and Health Ministers have also committed to helping boost the supply of vaccines, medical countermeasures and inputs in developing countries and remove relevant supply and financing constraints. To this end, the G20 will continue to support the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) and the extension of its mandate into 2022, advancing collaboration with global and regional initiatives.

To further strengthen a crucial coordination between Finance and Health Ministries, G20 members agreed to establish a Joint Finance-Health Task Force to enhance the collaboration and global cooperation on issues relating to pandemic prevention, preparedness and response, thus leaving the international community better prepared in the eventual case of future health threats outbreaks. The Task Force will also promote the exchange of experiences and best practices, developing coordination arrangements between Finance and Health Ministries, promoting collective action and encouraging effective stewardship of resources to address the existing financing gaps in pandemic preparedness and response.

The Task Force will report to Health and Finance Ministers in early 2022 and will be assisted by a secretariat housed at the WHO, with the support of the World Bank.


Text, pics and videos/G20, CC BY3.0